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[备考攻略] 【AP英文】记那么多句型还不如看看这些修辞大全!

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发表于 2016-2-3 14:07:30 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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A
§ ACTIVE VOICE - that form of the verb by which its subject is represented as the agent or doer of the action expressed by it (e.g. "The boy threw the ball” uses the active voice") see passive voice

§ ALLEGORY - a work of literature told on two levels of meaning, one literal and one symbolic (e.g. Animal Farm)

§ ALLITERATION – sound device; repetition of initial sounds (e.g. “on scrolls of silver snowy sentences”)

§ ALLUSION – figure of speech which makes brief reference to an historical or literary figure, even, or object; a reference in one literary work to a character of theme found in another literary work (e.g. T.S. Elliot in “the Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” alludes to the biblical figure John the Baptist

§ AMBIGUITY – the expression of an idea in language which gives more than one meaning an leaves uncertainty as to the meaning

§ ANALOGY – the comparison of two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one (e.g. black is to white as Hamlet is to Fortinbras; e.g. the operation of a computer presents and interesting analogy to the working of the brain)

§ ANECDOTE – a short narrative (story) used in a longer work or speech to make a point, often, but not necessarily, humorous

§ ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE – a short narrative given to support an argument or idea; often non-scientific observations

§ ANTAGONIST – the character in a narrative or play who is in conflict with the main character; an antagonist may not even be a person, or may be the same person as the main character (e.g. Hamlet can often be seen as his own antagonist)

§ ANTECEDENT – the noun that a pronoun refers back to in a sentence or closely related sentences (e.g. Jane lost a glove and she can't find it, Jane is the antecedent of she and glove is the antecedent of it)

§ ANTICLIMAX - an event, conclusion, statement, etc., that is far less important, powerful, or striking than expected; a noticeable or ludicrous descent from lofty ideas or expressions to banalities or commonplace remarks ( e.g. We were amused by the anticlimax of the company's motto: “For God, for country, and for Acme Gasworks.”)

§ APOSTROPHE – addressing someone or something usually not present, as though present; a figure of speech wherein the speaker speaks directly to something non-human; often it is to a god, ghost, some supernatural thing, an absent person or abstract quality (e.g. “Death , be not Proud”)

§ ARCHAIC LANGUAGE –antiquated language; language commonly used in earlier time but rare in present (e.g. Shakespeare)

§ ARGUMENTS – assertions made based on facts, statistics, logical reasoning, hard evidence, etc.

§ ASIDE – a statement delivered by an actor in such a way that the other characters on stage are presumed not to have heard him

§ ASSONANCE – similarity or repetition of a vowel sound in two or more words, especially in a line of verse (e.g. the short e in “Hear the mellow wedding bells…”; the long o “ …the molten-golden notes”) *Remember: poetry is meant to be heard so when trying to determine sound devices like assonance you need to look beyond spelling and hear the sounds

§ ATMOSPHERE - the dominant mood or emotional tone of a work of art

§ AUDIENCE -The spectators or listeners assembled at a performance, for example, or attracted by a radio or television program; the readership for printed matter, as for a book

§ AUTOBIOGRAPHY – author’s own life story; first-person account

C
§ CARPE DIEM – Latin for seize the day; enjoy the present

§ CHARACTER - a person represented in a drama, story, etc.; an account of the qualities or peculiarities of a person or thing; the aggregate of features and traits that form the individual nature of some person or thing

§ CHARACTERIZATION – the method a writer uses to reveal the personality of a character in a literary work. Personality may be revealed (1) by what the character says about himself or herself; (2) by what other reveal about the character; and (3) by the character’s own actions;see also direct and indirect presentation/characterization

§ CHARACTER FOIL – a character who sets off another character by contrast (e.g. Hamlet and Fortinbras; e.g. Elizabeth and Abigail in The Crucible)

§ CHRONOLOGICAL ORDERING - arranged in the order of time; often used in narratives

§ CLICHé – an overused expression (e.g. strong as an ox; e.g. don’t judge a book by its cover); anything which has become commonplace with overuse and hence has lost its vitality

§ CLIMAX - in a dramatic or literary work) a decisive moment that is of maximum intensity or is a major turning point in a plot

§ COLLOQUIAL – informal, not always grammatically correct expressions that find acceptance in certain geographical areas and within certain groups of people (e.g. Southerners say “Ya’ll”); words or phrases used in everyday speech but avoided in formal writing (e.g. “bummed out”) see also vernacular and slang

§ COMEDY – a work which strives to provoke smiles and laughter

§ COMIC RELIEF – something of humour interrupts an otherwise serious, often tragic, literary work (e.g. gravediggers in Hamlet)

§ COMPLEMENT – the part of a sentence that comes after a subject and verb and completes the thought (see direct and indirect objects, predicate nouns and predicate adjectives – grammar)

§ COMPLICATION- the part of a plot in which the entanglement caused by the conflict is developed

§ CONFLICT - a struggle between opposing forces: man vs. man; man vs. nature; man vs. himself; man vs. society

§ CONJUNCTION – part of speech used to link words, phrases, and clauses; coordinate conjunctions (and, but, or, not) connect independent clauses; subordinate conjunctions connect a subordinate clause to an independent clause, a complete thought

§ CONNECTIVE OR TRANSITION – word or phrase that links ideas, sentences, or paragraphs together to create logical organization in writing –may be one word “also”, a phrase “along with ________”, or a subordinate clause; see transitional adverb

§ CONNOTATION – the emotional implications that a word may carry; implied or associated meaning for a particular word (e.g. “home” can have many emotional meanings outside of its denotation) see also denotation

§ CONSONANCE – the repetition of consonant sounds with differing vowel sounds in words near each other in a line or lines of poetry (e.g. But yet we trust)

§ COUPLET – two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme (e.g. A tree whose hungry mouth is prest / Against the sweet earth's flowing breast)

§ CRISIS – the climax or turning point of a story or play (may have more than one crisis when there are several almost-equal major characters)

D
§ DENOTATION – the specific, exact meaning of a word; a dictionary definition

§ DENOUEMENT – the resolution of a plot after the climax

§ DIALECT – speech peculiar to a region; exhibits distinctions between two groups or even two persons; dialects in this country are peculiar to various regions

§ DIALOGUE – conversation between two or more characters, usually set off with quotation marks

§ DIARY - daily record, usually private, esp. of the writer's own experiences, observations, feelings, attitudes, etc.

§ DICTION – an author’s choice of words (e.g. Sophisticated, colloquial, formal, informal, etc.)

§ DIDACTIC – when the primary aim of a work is to teach

§ DIGRESSION – a temporary departure from the main subject in speaking or writing

§ DILEMMA – a situation requiring a choice between equally undesirable alternatives

§ DIRECT OBJECT – noun complement that comes after an action verb in an English sentence

§ DRAMA – story performed by actors on a stage

§ DRAMATIC IRONY – in which a reader or an audience perceive something that a character in the story or play does not know

§ DRAMATIC FORM – a medium for the expression of dramatic meaning (e.g., improvisation, tableau, role, Story Theatre, dance drama, Readers Theatre, mask, mime, puppetry, script work, audiovisual); may involve the integration of a variety of media and a combination of the arts.

§ DYNAMIC CHARACTER – a character that develops or changes throughout a story; the character may come to some realization

E
§ ELLIPSIS – in grammar, the omission of a word or words necessary for complete construction but understood in context (…)

§ EPIPHANY - a moment of illumination, usually occurring at or near the end of a work

§ ESSAY – a piece of prose writing, usually short, that deals with a subject in a limited way and expresses a particular point of view (the word essay comes from the French word essai meaning attempt or try)

§ EUPHEMISM - the substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt (e.g. To pass away” is a euphemism for “to die.”)

§ EUPHONY - agreeableness of sound; pleasing effect to the ear, esp. a pleasant sounding or harmonious combination or succession of words; sound devices like alliteration, assonance, consonance can create euphony

§ EXPOSITION – that part of a narrative or drama in which important background information is revealed

§ EXPLICATION - an explanation; interpretation

§ EXTENDED METAPHOR – a metaphor that extends throughout a poem

§ EXTERNAL CONFLICT – a struggle against some outside person or force

F
§ FABLE – a brief story that is told to present a moral or practical lesson; the characters are often animals who speak and act like human beings (e.g. Animal Farm)

§ FAIRY TALE - a fanciful tale of legendary deeds and creatures, usually intended for children; a fictitious, highly fanciful story or explanation

§ FALLING ACTION – follows the crisis or climax and shows a reversal of fortune for the protagonist; the winding down of action

§ FANTASY - fiction characterized by highly fanciful or supernatural elements

§ FARCE – a type of comedy based on a ridiculous situation, often with stereotyped characters; it often involves crude physical action

§ FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE – language that is extended beyond the literal (e.g. metaphor, simile, imagery, metonymy, oxymoron, personification, etc.)

§ FIRST PERSON – this point of view is told from the “I” perspective

§ FLASHBACK- when the action is interrupted to show an event that happened earlier

§ FLAT CHARACTER –a character that we know little about or on only one level, this character is not developed

§ FOIL – a character that contrasts sharply with another character; in their contrast, foils serve to highlight the characteristics of the contrasting character (e.g. Hamlet and Fortinbras)

§ FOLK TALE - a tale or legend originating and traditional among a people or folk, esp. one forming part of the oral tradition of the common people; any belief or story passed on traditionally, esp. one considered to be false or based on superstition

§ FORESHADOWING hints or clues as to future events

§ FORM – the structure, shape, pattern, organization, or style of a piece of literature

§ FORMAL LANGUAGE – language that is free of colloquialism, slang, informal language

G
§ GENRE - a kind of literary or artistic work (e.g. novel, play, poem, mystery, etc.)

§ GRAPHIC TEXT –visual information in the form of graphs, maps, timelines, charts, etc.

§ GROTESQUE - odd or unnatural in shape, appearance, or character; fantastically ugly or absurd; bizarre

H
§ HERO/HEROINE – main character who has strength or moral character, a noble cause

§ HISTORICAL REFERENCE – any reference to past events or people in history

§ HUMOUR – writing whose purpose it is to evoke some kind of laughter; a comic, absurd, or incongruous quality causing amusement

§ HYPERBOLE – a figure of speech using exaggeration or overstatement for special effect

I
§ IDIOMS –expressions that do not translate exactly into what a speaker means; idioms are culturally relevant; when a person uses an idiomatic expression, he or she truly “thinks” in the language

§ IMAGERY – words or phrases that create pictures or images in the reader’s mind; images are primarily visual but can appeal to all the senses

§ INDIRECT OBJECT –noun complement used after an action verb, with implied “to: or “for” before it

§ INDIRECT PRESENTATION – the method of revealing character traits by action and speech; in this method of characterization, we must infer characteristics by what a character says or does

§ INFORMAL LANGUAGE – conversational, relaxed language

§ INTERNAL CONFLICT- the dilemma facing the character inside and its impact on that character; a conflict a person has with themselves, some decision they are struggling to make

§ INVERTED SENTENCE / INVERSION –reversing the normal subject-verb complement order

§ IRONY – a contrast or incongruity between what is stated and what s really meant, or between what is expected to happen and what actually happens; three kinds 1) verbal irony where what is said and what is meant is different; 2) situational irony where there is a discrepancy between the expected results of some situation and the actual results; 3) dramatic irony in which a reader or an audience perceive something that a character in the story or play does not know

J
§ JARGON –the language, esp. the vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession, or group (e.g. medical jargon); unintelligible or meaningless talk or writing; language that is characterized by uncommon or pretentious vocabulary and convoluted syntax and is often vague in meaning

§ JUXTAPOSITION –the positioning of contrasting ideas or images side by side

L
§ LEGEND - a widely told tale about the past, one that may have a foundation in fact

§ LIMITED OMNISCIENT POINT OF VIEW - occurs when you can see through the eyes of only one person (e.g. She thought, he felt, etc.)

§ LITERAL LANGUAGE – the exact / dictionary meaning of a word(s)

M
§ METAPHOR – a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things that are basically dissimilar (e.g. Life is a dream); an implied metaphor does not directly state that one thing is another, different thing; an extended metaphor is a metaphor that is extended throughout a poem; a dead metaphor is a metaphor that has become so commonplace that it seems literal rather than figurative (e.g. head of the class); a mixed metaphor is the use of two or more inconsistent metaphors in one expression; when examined they often do not make sense; they are often unintentionally humorous (e.g. To hold the fort he’s have to shake a leg)

§ METONYMY –substituting a word naming an object for another word closely associated with it (e.g. Pay tribute to the crown; The pen is mightier than the sword; Hollywood is for the entertainment industry)

§ MOOD - a prevailing emotional tone or general attitude; see atmosphere

§ MOTIF – a recurring feature (such as a name, an image or a phrase) in a work of literature; a motif generally contributes in some way to the theme of the work; sometimes motif is used to refer to some commonly used plot or character type such as the “Romeo and Juliet motif” (doomed lovers)

§ MYSTERY - a novel, short story, play, or film whose plot involves a crime or other event that remains puzzlingly unsettled until the very end; anything that is kept secret or remains unexplained or unknown

§ MYTH –a story, often about immortals and sometimes connected with religious rituals that is intended to give meaning to the mysteries of the world (a body of related myths is known as mythology)

N
§ NARRATIVE – a story

§ NARRATION –telling a story

§ NARRATOR –speaker or persona, the one who tells the story; with a reliable narrator everything this narrator says is true, and the narrator knows everything necessary to the story; with an unreliable narrator the narrator may not know all the relevant information, may be intoxicated or mentally ill, or may lie to the narrator

§ NON SEQUITUR – (Latin for “it does not follow”) a statement that does not follow logically from what preceded it; all logical fallacies are a type of non sequitur (e.g. If my hair looks nice, all people will love me." However, there is no real connection between your hair and the love of all people)

§ NOVEL – an extended prose narrative

O
§ OBJECTIVE (LANGUAGE, TONE, ETC) – unbiased language; the writer’s feelings about the subject are not clearly identifiable

§ OBJECTIVE POINT OF VIEW – narrator is outside of all characters and only records what is seen and heard

§ OMNISCIENT POINT OF VIEW –all knowing or god-like point of view

§ ONOMATOPOEIA – the use of a word to represent or to imitate natural sounds (e.g. sizzle, buss, pop, hiss)

§ ORDER OF IMPORTANCE –a method of organizing a paper according to the relative significance of the subtopics

§ OXYMORON – technique used to produce an effect by putting together contradictory words (e.g. cruel kindness, jumbo shrimp)

P
§ PARABLE – a short story to prove a point with a moral basis (e.g. New Testament stories by Christ)

§ PARADOX – a statement which contains seemingly contradictory elements or appears contrary to common sense, yet can be seen as perhaps true when viewed from another angle (e.g. damn with faint praise, Child is father to the man)

§ PARRALEL STRUCTURE OR PARRALELISM – the repetition of syntactical similarities in passages closely connected for rhetorical effect

§ PARAPHRASE – a restatement of an idea in such a way as to retain the meaning while changing the diction and form

§ PASSIVE VOICE -sentences written in passive voice, the subject receives the action expressed in the verb; the subject is acted upon. The agent performing the action may appear in a "by the . . ." phrase or may be omitted (e.g. The ball was thrown by the boy)

§ PERSONIFICATION – inanimate objects are given human qualities (e.g. Hunger sat shivering on the road or Flowers danced about the lawn)

§ PLAYWRIGHT - a writer of plays; dramatist

§ PLOT – the structure of a story or the sequence in which the author arranges events

§ POINT OF VIEW – the narrator or speaker perspective from which the story is told 1) third person stands outside the story itself and characters are referred to as “he”/ “she”/ “they”; 2) first-person narrator participates in the story and is told from the “I” or “we” perspective; an omniscient 3rd person narrator sees into people’s thoughts, can change setting, is all knowing; limited omniscient occurs when you can see through the eyes of only one person (e.g. She thought, he felt, etc.); second person is the use of indefinite “you” or the placement of the reader within the story to involve him/her on a deep level (this type of view occurs occasionally for effect)

§ PROLOGUE - an introductory speech, often in verse, calling attention to the theme of a play; any introductory proceeding, event, etc.

§ PROPAGANDA – appeals to emotion in the form of information, ideas, and arguments that are spread by organized groups or individuals and designed to convince and persuade to action

§ PROSE – all forms of written expression not having a regular rhythmical pattern (not written in verse)

§ PROTAGONIST – the main character in the story

§ PROVERB - short popular saying, usually of unknown and ancient origin, that expresses effectively some commonplace truth or useful thought; wise saying or precept; a didactic sentence

§ PUN – a play on words wherein a word is used to convey two meanings at the same time (e.g. When the beautician was asked to complete her make-up work she blushed)





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发表于 2016-2-3 15:24:29 | 显示全部楼层
想当初每次写作的时候都感觉没什么修辞可以用~
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